The Ilongots, also known as Bugkalots, are well known for their intense aggressiveness and cultural conservatism. Their communities straddle the boundaries of Quirino, Aurora, and Nueva Vizcaya, mostly in Dupax, Kasibu, and the Sierra Madre and Caraballo mountains in the headwaters of the Cagayan, Tabayon, and Conwap Rivers. The Ilongot, who are of Indonesian descent, have five subgroups: Italon (who have Mongolian features), Engongot, Kadayakan, Abaca, and Dagkan. Each group has its own dialect and customs.



The Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines, National Commission in Indigenous Peoples.
Philippine Literature,


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